Jaringan ikat atau penyokong

on 15 April 2008

Fungsi:
- menghubungkan satu jaringan dg jaringan lain
- mengikat, melekatkan/menghubungkan berbagai alat
- mengisi & menyokong tubuh
Ciri-ciri:
- letak sel2 jaringan ikat tdk berhimpitan, jk berhubungan hanya pd ujung protoplasmanya
- memiliki komponen intraseluler/matriks
- bentuk sel tdk teratur, sitoplasma bergranula & inti sel menggelembung.
Jaringan ikat terdiri:
a. Jaringan ikat padat
Tersusun atas serabut kolagen putih & elastin, yg liat & kuat; matriks rapat/padat, ex: tendon, ligamen, fasia.
b. Jaringan ikat longgar
Tersusun banyak macam sel: fibroblas/fibrosit, sel plasma, makrofag, sel darah putih, serabut kolagen & elastin; matriks longgar. ex: diantara & di sekitar organ, pembuluh darah, dibawah kulit.
c. jaringan lemak/adipose
Bentuk longgar, tersusun dr sel2 lemak yg berdinding tipis & di dalamnya tdpt rongga yg penuh tetes lemak. ex: dibawah kulit, sekitar ginjal, bantalan persendian, & dlm sumsum tulang panjang.
d. Jaringan tulang
Merupakan jaringan penyokong, menegakkan tubuh. Sel2nya disebut: osteosit, berada dlm lakuna. Matriks mengalami pengapuran/kalsifikasi yg mengandung Ca-karbonat & Ca-fosfat; shg keras & kuat. Proses penulangan disebut: ossifikasi.
Meliputi jaringan tulang kompak dan spons.
e. jar tulang rawan/kartilago
Termasuk jaringan penyokong. Selnya disebut: kondrosit, berada dalam lakuna. Matrik elastis dan padat oleh sel2 rawan di dlm rongga matriks. Pd anak berasal dr jaringan ikat embrional/mesenkim & orang dewasa dibentuk dr selaput rawan/perikondrium. Dibedakan menjadi: kartilago hialin (trachea, permukaan tulang sendi), fibrosa (cakram antar ruas tulang belakang, simfisis pubis) & elastis (daun telinga, epiglotis, laring, pmbuluh eustachia)
f. Jaringan darah
Komponen: eritrosit, leukosit, trombosit, plasma darah. Fungsi: mengangkut sari makanan, hasil metabolisme, imunitas & pembekuan darah.
g. jaringan limfe
Komponen: limfosit, granulosit; berada dlm cairan limfe (t'diri air, glukosa, lemak & garam). Beredar dlm pembuluh limfe,& dpt keluar dr pembuluh limfe membasahi rongga2 jaringan antar sel. Fungsi: mengangkut lemak, protein & cairan jaringan.

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